BildIn this edited book I have contributed two chapters. The first on creativity:

“In this chapter I will discuss the role of creativity in the video game industry. As this is defined an creative industry it is assumed that whatever happens here is creative, or dependent on creative acts. But I would like to suggest that here is where we have to separate categorisation from process: the category of creative industries from the process of being creative. In that aspect it is a bit unfortunate that the video game industry is categorized as a creative industry, instead of a cultural industry. This would have solved the issue of category and process. Of course, there are aspects of this industry that can, and should, be defined as creative; although other parts are stifled by an inability to change normative patterns. Aspects of the industry that have been institutionalised and inflexible for changes that creative acts can bring with it. I would like to argue that the creative aspect in the video game industry are to be found in most part of the value chain, just as creativity can be found on many other industries – not defined as creative (or belonging to the category of creative industry to be exact). This mean that there are game developers that are very creative, but this also goes for publishers, distributors, sales and games consumers (gamers): new business models, utilising new technology for new gaming experiences, renegotiating gaming and so forth. Thus, the content in a game is not per definition the result of a creative process, this could very much be quite the opposite. Neither is the content of a game creative just because it is the result of an artistic process. We have to separate artistic work and creative work: artistic work does not necessarily have to be creative. Video games are cultural products that has the ability to bring forth creative aspects in its production, distribution and use.”

And the second (co authored with Timpothy Wilson) on consumers:

“In this chapter we discuss how the consumer is made part of the development of video games, from sales to co-production. The role of the consumer, however, is neither straightforward nor easily defined because video games, similar to other cultural products, do not follow a simple development pattern of definition and production. A discussion of the role of the consumer in the context of cultural products, and of video games specifically,  is therefore of particular importance. In this chapter we will therefore focus on the person for whom games are ultimately created for, the gamer. Like any other industry, the video games industry comprises a large number of different actors, and the value chain in the development of video games (Zackariasson and Wilson, 2012) could be described as follows: developer – publisher – distributor – retailer – customer – consumer. But, the consumer, as end user, is not merely the final participant in the value chain. The consumer is an important actor for sending feedback back along the value chain, in order for value to be created throughout the process of delivering a video game.”